The meaning of the *: See also
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A(back to top)
abrasion
Latin abrasio "scraping down"
The destructive effect of the rolling sea on the coasts. Also known as ocean-abrade.
accumulation
Latin accumulare "heap up"
Mechanical enrichment; the piling of heavy metal and/or liquid phases in the magma.
actualism
Latin actualitas "timeliness"
One of geology's important investigational principles (by Lyell), according to which the same effects cause the processes relating to the history of the earth as in past.
aftershock
Quakes with smaller magnitude, which follow the larger quakes, their number are in a neighbourhood of more than a hundred or a thousand. They could do serious damage to the buildings damaged by the main quake despite their smaller magnitude.
agglomerate
Latin agglomerare "closely press to one another"
Formless, often not solidified settlings consisting of rough, angular rubble.
In tighter meaning: accumulation of volcanic spreading product.
amorphous
Greek "formless"
Such matter, whose corpuscles don't show regular arrangement in spite of their solid state.
anticline *synclinal
Greek anti "against", klinein "to bend"
The upward-tending part of saddle-shaped stone fold.
asthenosphere
Greek "weak zone"
A zone, which can be found below the earth's crust in about 750—800 kilometres depth.

B(back to top)
barchane
Turkmenian
*dune
batholith
Greek bathosz "depth", lithosz "stone"
Extensive rock-body, which originated as a result of intrusion.
Benioff zone *picture
Wadati-Benioff zone
A dipping planar (flat) zone of earthquakes that is produced by the interaction of a descending oceanic crustal plate with a continental plate. These earthquakes can be produced by slips along the subduction thrust fault or by slip on faults within the downgoing plate as a result of bending and extension as the plate is pulled into the mantle.
biosphere
Greek biosz "life", szphaira "shpere"
Such zone of the earth's crust, which embraces the entirety of living organisms.
biostratigraphy
Greek biosz "life", Latin stratum "layer", Greek graphein "to write"
Stratigraphy.
breccia
Italian
Detritic, sedimentary rock, which consist of cemented, angular rock- or mineral-scraps.

C(back to top)
concordance *discordance
Latin concordans "harmonious, harmonise"
Deposition of stratifications with the same tilting and path.
conglomerate
Latin conglomerare "to shape, to roll up"
Rough-grained detrial sedimentary rock; pedocal, sandy, ferrous or siliceous binding material is strengthens (cementing) the rounded granules.
consolidation
latin consolidare "solidify"
One phase of the "crumbly" continental deposit's turning into rock. (diagenesis)
contact metamorphosis *metamorphosis
contact transformation
The heat delivered by the invading magma frames the originally "cold" associated-rocks.
contraction
Latin contractio "shrinkage"
Shrinking comes with the formation of splittings, lithoclases in cases of soils or magmatic rocks.
cosmogony
Greek kozmosz "world", goneia "creation"
A science dealing with the evolution of the universe, in a narrow sense, with the evoltuion of the planetary systems.
craton
Greek kratynein "solidify"
The stable, hardened, consolidated part of the earth's crust, in contrast with mobile zones.

D(back to top)
denudation
Latin denudare "strip"
Erosion.
depression
Latin depressus "lowly, deep-seated"
Morphological element = sinkation. It means sucking in (the sinking of original water level or thrust line) in hydraulics.
diagenesis
Greek dia "after" genezisz "birth, origin, source"
Collective term for the process of becoming stone.
dilatation
Relative change of some body's cubage produced by external power impulse, change in temperature or other reason.
discordance *concordance
Latin discordia: "unevenness, strife"
Unequal deposition of the rock, namely the irregularity of the stratification.
dislocation, disturbance
Latin "faultage, displacement, shifting"
Tectonic (structural) or atectonic (not structural) process, which changes the primary spatial position, namely the deposition established at the formation of rocks.
dune *barchane
Germano-Dutch
Dome-like terrestrial formation accumulated by wind.

E(back to top)
endogenous
Greek endon "inside", genezisz "origin"
atribute of processes, occurrences connected to acting powers in the bowels of the earth.
epeirogeny
Greek épeirosz "mainland", genezisz "origin"
Long-continued rising or lowering of the crust's bigger parts.
epicentre *hypocentre
Greek epi "over", Latin centrum "centre"
The point of surface, which takes up place over an earthquake's focus (in the direction of Earth's radius).
era
Latin aera "age, point of time"
erosion
Latin erosio "outwash, corrosion"
Destructive activity of running water, wind or ice.
eruption
Latin erumpare "throw out, fling out"
The outbreaking of magma from the interior of the earth.
evaporation
Latin ex "out", vapor "fume"
Vaporization. Matter precipitation through the evaporation or volatilization of solutions. For example: origin of rock-salt.
exogén
Greek exon "outside", genezisz "origin"
Powers acting to the surface of the Earth.
expansion
Latin expandere "extend"
Notion related to earth-dilatation theory or cubage-enlargement.

F(back to top)
facies
Latin "mien, figure, face"
The sum total of sediment's petrographic, palaeontological characteristics, which determined by the physical, geographical, geological terms of razing and accumulating zone.
focal depth *in greater detail
Distance of the hypocentre and the epicentre. (Shallow: 0 kilometre — 30 kilometres, Medium: 30 kilometres — 300 kilometres, Deep: 300 kilometres — 750 kilometres)
focal mechanism *in greater detail
It shows, that what kind of process is passed by in the hypocentre at the quake, how the fault plane took its position, what was the direction of the shifting and also could conclude to the main attributes of the tenseness area, which caused the quake.
focus *focal depth
*hypocentre
formation
Latin formatio "formation"
Layer-row, which originated in a certain period of the Earth history and definitely stand out against the under and above settling layers.
fumaroles
Latin fumus "smoke, vapour"
Comprehensive name of volcanic gases and vapours, which gush out from splits and clefts.

G(back to top)
geodesy
Greek gé "earth" -> land-surveying
A branch of science, which is interested in the determination and representation of formations (on the surface of the earth and under the surface of the earth) dimensions and sites, the marking out of planned establishments predetermined places and as well as in the determination of position.
geoid
Greek gé "earth"
Geoid, geometric body, the calculated shape of the Earth without relief.
geologist *geology
Greek Latin
Geology scientist
geology *geologist *hydrogeology
Greek gé "earth" logosz "thesis"
Science of the earth's (earth's crust) composition and the regularity of histories.
geosynclinal *synclinal
Greek gé "earth", szyn "together", klinein "to bend"
Enormous hollow in the earth's crust (superficial morphologic notion).
glacial *interglacial phase
Latin glacies "ice"
Attribute of ice ages' deposits, formations.
glacier
Latin glacies "ice"
Ice-flow: mass of snow, frozen up to ice, which slides slowly downwards in high mountains' valleys.
Gondwana or Gondvana
after the name of one East Indian tribe
Such part of the ancient-continent (Pangea), which included the dry lands of the southern hemisphere, generally until the Mesozoic era.

H(back to top)
hydrogeology *geology
Greek hydor "water", gé "earth", logosz "thesis"
Science of lode of underground waters, one branch of the applied geology.
hydrology
Greek hydor "water", logosz "thesis"
Science of water: its objective is to examine the water's outward forms, natural relations of it, and its interaction with the environment under and above the surface.
hydrosphere
Greek hydor "water", szphaira "shpere"
The water-cover of the Earth, firstly the oceans.
hypocentre *focus *epicentre
Greek hypo "lower", Latin centrum "centre"
Points in the depth of the Earth, which settled down where the rocks break or where the rock-bodies move in relation to each other; its depth could increase from some kilometres until 750 kilometres.

I(back to top)
inclination
Latin inclinare "to bend"
1. The measure of a slope's leaning. 2. The included angle of the geomagnetic field's direction with the horizontal.
infiltration
Latin infiltratio "permeation"
Penetration or impregnation of dissolved matters to the pores and hollows of rocks.
ingression *transgression *regression
Latin ingressio "going in, entrance, advance"
The slow pressing forward of the oceans to such firm ground's territory, which is in the state of settling.
injection
Latin iniectio "immission"
1. The advance of fluid with magmatic origin or magmatic matter to a rock. 2. The incursion of salt-rocks to the sediments which are above it. 3. The allocation of chemical substances to the ground to stabilize and condense the subsoil.
interglacial phase
Latin inter "between", glacialis "iced, icy"
A warmer climatic period between two glacial eras.
intrusion
Latin intrudare "to deviate"
The ingression of larger masses of magma between coherent rocks.
isoseismic line
Junction-line of places exposed to earthquakes with the same strength on the map.
isostasy
Greek izosz "same", sztatisz "standing"
Theory relating to hydrostatical balanced status of the earth's crust (theory of natation).

L(back to top)
lapilli *rapilli
Latin lapillus "little stone"
Elemental part of mosaic, volcanic spreading product with the size of a peanut or walnut.
laterite
Latin later "brick"
Type of ground. Laterite bauxite: bauxite variant formed in case of tropical climate.
lava *magma
Melted, glowing rock, which flows the surface on the occasion of eruptions.
lithoral
Latin litoralis "coastal"
Attribute of powers, processes, which are active in seashore area.
lithosphere
Greek lithosz "stone", szphaira "sphere"
The external sector of the Earth, which contain the earth's crust and the earth's upper-crust. (The latter forms a mechanical unity with the previous.)
logarithm
We call the b positive number's a based (a > 0; a cannot equal with 1) logarithm that exponent, which we get, if we raise a to the b th power. Symbol: a^logab = b; The natural logarithm: 10^lg b = b (The ^ sign means raising to a higher power)

M(back to top)
magma *lava
Greek "thoroughly kneaded paste"
Natural rock-melt, which fully flows on a higher temperature.
magnitude
Latin "extent"
The measure of the strength of the earthquake, which is determined from the seismogram. Can be calculated form the logarithm of the ground-movement's amplitude, it depends on the distance from the epicentre, decreased to such logarithm, to which they give arbitrarily zero value. The Richter's scale uses this expression.
meander (meandering)
Greek Maiandrosz, now Menderes, winding river on the west coast of Asia Minor
Vigorous river bend, firstly as a result of the sidling erosion.
metamorphosis *contact metamorphosis
Greek "transformation"
The transformation of rock's mineral substance in the earth's crust, because of the changes of temperature and pressure.
metasomatism
Greek meta "across", szóma "body"
Transformation of minerals (rocks) on chemical way with the exchange of each element. In the first place, high temperature is necessary for it.
morphology
Greek morf "form, shape", logosz "thesis"
Branch of science, which deals with the shapes of the earth's surface.

O(back to top)
orogenesis
Greek orosz "mountain", genezisz "origin"
Formation of mountains.

P(back to top)
paleo
Greek palaiosz "old, aged"
Palaeobotany, palaeoclimatology etc.
Pangea *picture
Greek pasz "whole", gé "earth"
Great, unified ancient-continent, which split up in the course of the Mesozoic era.

R(back to top)
rapilli *lapilli
regional
Latin regio "region, territory, area, country"
Expanding over a large area, e.g. fault system.
regression *ingression *transgression
Latin "stepping back"
Movement backwards of the ocean.

S(back to top)
seismice
Greek szeizmosz "earthquake"
Connected with earthquake.
seismologist *seismology
Greek szeizmosz "earthquake", logosz "thesis"
Researcher, scientist of seismology.
seismology
Greek szeizmosz "earthquake", logosz "thesis"
Science, which deals with earthquakes. One branch of the geophysics, which deals with earthquakes, registers them, and the examination of the Earth's inner structure. We successfully understand the conditions of the earthquakes' origin, we are able to recognize the inner construction of our planet (e.g. We discovered the Earth's core).
shelf
English shelf "border, edge"
Continental shelf, the edge of continents below the surface of the ocean, which expand from the coast to the start of the continental slope (from about 200 metres depth), which are strongly steep and extend towards the deep-sea. It has an increasing role in the world's rock oil and natural gas supplement.
solifluction
Latin solum "ground, earth" fluere "to flow"
Soil creep movement, earth-flow.
stratigraphy
Latin stratum "layer", Greek graphein "to write"
Stratigraphy.
stress
English stress "tension"
Mean that tenseness state in tectonics, which come into being in a body in the course of the usage of it. Also known as guided pressure.
structure
Latin structura "construction, assembling"
subduction
Latin subducere "to drive under"
Process of shoving-under, in the course of that one rock-plate (lithosphere-plate) slide under the other, along the so-called subduction zones.
synclinal *geosynclinal *anticlinal
Greek szyn "together", klinein "to bend"
Hollow, trough. Morphologically, sinkage, accumulation of settlings occur within it.

T(back to top)
tectonics
Greek tektonikosz "belonging to the architecture"
Crust-structurology, mountain-structurology.
terra rossa
Italian "red soil"
Brick red, ground rich in mud-matter, which contain waterless ferrous compound; it originates in wet, warm climatic conditions, firstly on less clayey lime-rocks.
terrace
French terrassa "stepped area"
Stepped area, which is made by fresh water, which slams into the rock of cushion or into the stream deposit dumped on its own.
terrestrial
Latin terra "earth"
Continental, e.g. terrestrial deposit; sediment formed by land.
transgression *ingression *regression
Latin transgresszio "stepping over"
The advancing of the ocean towards the mainland.

V(back to top)
vulcanite
Extrusive rock. Also called as effusivum.

W(back to top)
Wadati-Benioff zone *Benioff zone
See: Benioff zone